This article provides a comparative perspective on bid rigging in Japan, the United States and Europe. It emphasizes the differences in both institutional structure as well as policy and business culture in the three jurisdictions, particularly in terms of antitrust and criminal law enforcement. It notes the greater tolerance of bid rigging in Japan in the case of construction contracts for public works.
Regulations on Bid Rigging in Japan, the United States and Europe,
4 Pac. Rim L & Pol'y J.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.law.uw.edu/wilj/vol4/iss1/10