This article examines three recent cases—one from the U.S. Supreme Court, one from the European Court of Justice and one from the High Court of Osaka—dealing with the antitrust implications of aftermarket tying arrangements. Tying occurs when the manufacturer of a machine refuses to sell spare parts to independent repair and service companies. The antitrust implications of tying will be of growing importance in the future as manufactured equipment becomes ever more complex and dependent on specialized repair parts and service. After an introductory review of conventional tying doctrine, the paper compares the approaches of the three courts, finding them strikingly similar in analysis and outcome, suggesting the presence of some broadly applicable principles of free market conduct.
William R. Andersen,
Kodak and Aftermarket Tying Analysis: Some Comparative Thoughts,
4 Pac. Rim L & Pol'y J.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.law.uw.edu/wilj/vol4/iss1/12