Washington International Law Journal


This article deals with the question of differences in competition policy enforcement regimes in Japan, Europe and the United States. In answer to the question "Do differences matter?", the author concludes that they matter less than conventional wisdom suggests at least in terms of "fairness" and effectiveness. The article challenges the widely held views that Japan's competition rules are ineffectively enforced and that U.S. antitrust enforcement, especially treble damage actions, have had an unfair impact on foreign firms. The article concludes with recommendations for greater cooperation between trade regulation and antitrust enforcement authority in the United States and among competition policy enforcement authority internationally.

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