The reform of administrative litigation under the new Constitution involves a shift from an "administrative state" to a "judicial state." This does not mean, however, that the system of administrative litigation is now the same as the system in the Anglo-American "judicial state." The distinction between public and private law is still maintained in Japan, and "administrative acts" (Gyosei-koi) are regulated by principles of public law quite different from rules applicable to private persons.
Judicial Review of Administrative Actions in Japan,
43 Wash. L. Rev.
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